mechanical engineering

mechanical engineering / Mechanical Engineering


Machinery Manufacturing
production process
The production process of products refers to the whole process of turning raw materials into finished products. The production process of mechanical products generally includes:
(1) Production and technology preparation, such as process design and special process equipment design and manufacture, production planning, production materials preparation, etc.
(2) The manufacture of blanks such as casting, forging, stamping, etc.
(3) Machining, cutting, heat treatment and surface treatment of parts.
(4) Assembly of products, such as assembly, assembly, commissioning, inspection and painting, etc.
(5) Production services such as supply, transportation and storage of raw materials, outsourced parts and tools.
Types of production
The classification of production specialization degree of enterprises (or workshops, sections, teams, workplaces) is called production type. Production types can generally be divided into three types: single-piece production, batch production and mass production.
Single piece production
The basic characteristics of single-piece production are: there are many kinds of products produced, the output of each product is very small, and there is little repetition of production. For example, the manufacture of heavy machinery products and the trial production of new products all belong to single-piece production.
Mass production
The basic characteristics of batch production are that the same products are produced in batches and the production is periodically repeated. For example, machine tool manufacturing and motor manufacturing belong to batch production. Batch production can be divided into three types according to its batch size: small batch production, medium batch production and large batch production. Among them, the technological characteristics of small batch production and large batch production are similar to those of single-piece production and large-scale production respectively; the technological characteristics of medium batch production lie between small batch production and large-scale production.
Mass production
The basic characteristics of mass production are: large output, few varieties, most of the work place repeats a certain process of a part for a long time. For example, the manufacture of automobiles, tractors, bearings and so on belongs to mass production.
product design
Product design is the core of enterprise product development. Product design must ensure technological advancement and economic rationality.
There are generally three forms of product design: innovative design, improved design and deformation design. Innovative design (exploitative design) is a brand-new design according to the user's use requirements; improved design (adaptive design) is a design that improves or remodels the original product of an enterprise according to the user's use requirements, i.e. redesigns only part of the structure or parts; deformation design (parameter design) only improves part of the product's structure size to form a series of products. Design. The basic contents of product design include: compiling design task book, scheme design, technical design and drawing design.
process planning
The basic task of process design is to ensure that the products produced can meet the design requirements, to formulate the manufacturing process rules of high quality, high yield and low consumption products, and to formulate all the process documents needed for trial production and formal production of products. Including: process analysis and audit of product drawings, formulation of processing plans, preparation of process regulations, and design and manufacture of process equipment.
Parts Processing
The processing of parts includes the production of blanks, as well as various mechanical processing, special processing and heat treatment of blanks, so as to make them qualified parts. Very few parts are processed by non-chip processing methods such as precision casting or precision forging. Usually, the production of blanks includes casting, forging, welding, etc. The commonly used mechanical processing methods are: benchwork, turning, drilling, planer, milling, boring, grinding, CNC machine tool processing, broaching, grinding, honing, etc. The commonly used heat treatment methods are normalizing, annealing, tempering, aging, tempering, quenching, etc. Special processing includes: EDM, WEDM, ECM, laser processing, ultrasonic processing, etc. Only according to the material, structure, shape, size and performance of the parts, proper processing methods can ensure the quality of the products and produce qualified parts.
Inspection is to use measuring instruments to inspect the dimensional accuracy, shape accuracy and position accuracy of blanks, parts, finished products and raw materials, and to appraise the quality of products by visual inspection, non-destructive testing, mechanical property test and metallographic examination.
Measuring instruments include measuring instruments and measuring instruments. Commonly used gauges are steel ruler, tape ruler, vernier caliper, caliper, plug gauge, micrometer, angle ruler, percentile meter and so on. They are used to detect the length, thickness, angle, diameter of outer circle, aperture of parts. In addition, thread micrometer, three-needle measuring method, thread pattern, thread ring gauge and thread plug gauge can be used for thread measurement.
There are buoy pneumometer, electronic measuring instrument, electric measuring instrument, optical measuring instrument, coordinate measuring instrument and so on. In addition to measuring the length, thickness, diameter and aperture of parts, the shape error and position error of parts can also be measured.
Special inspection mainly refers to the inspection of internal and external defects of parts. Nondestructive testing is a modern inspection technology to detect the internal and external defects of parts without damaging the tested objects. Non-destructive testing methods include direct naked eye inspection, X-ray inspection, ultrasonic inspection, magnetic inspection, etc.In use, appropriate methods and testing specifications should be selected according to the purpose of non-destructive testing.
Assembly and debugging
Any mechanical product consists of several parts, components and components. According to the stipulated technical requirements, the necessary coordination and connection between parts and components to make them into semi-finished products or finished products is called assembly. The process of assembling parts and components into components is called component assembly, and the process of assembling parts, components and components into final products is called general assembly. Assembly is the last stage of production in the process of mechanical manufacturing, which also includes adjustment, testing, inspection, painting and packaging.
Common assembly work includes cleaning, joining, calibration and matching, balance, acceptance and testing.
The finished products, semi-finished products and various materials produced by enterprises are put into warehouse for storage in order to prevent loss or damage, which is called warehousing.
When entering the warehouse, the warehouse shall be inspected, and the inspection records and relevant original records shall be filled in; the gauges, instruments and various tools shall be maintained and maintained; the relevant technical standards, drawings, archives and other information shall be properly maintained; the working place and indoor and outdoor neatness shall be maintained, and attention shall be paid to fire prevention and moisture prevention.Do a good job of safety.


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